Latest Research

Interviews and analysis addressing the state of scaling today

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Ethereum Today Innovation

What is the state of the ecosystem today, from Proof-of-Work to Sharding?

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Latest Research

Ethereum Name Service Applications

Nick Johnson on how first and second layer solutions will impact ENS, how to scale teams, and more.

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Second Order Questions Society

Should developers be asking how the technology they are building will impact people and society?

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Best practice recommendations from those actively working to scale Ethereum across layer one and layer two solutions.


Documentation is more important than you think.


Blockchain tehcnology requires teams have additional qualities.


How do we interpret the fast pace of innovation and the gap between research and development? Article coming soon.

Layer One

The latest Ethereum 2.0 Casper and sharding specification is a work-in-progress document for researchers and implementers. Here are some client implementations.


A Python implementation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine


A Go implementation of Ethereum 2.0 for Casper and Sharding


A client aimed at embedded systems, designed to perform well on IoT and mobile devices


Pantheon is an Apache 2.0 MainNet compatible Ethereum client written in Java and produced by PegaSys.


An implementation of the Ethereum 2.0 Beacon Chain in Rust.


An EthereumJ implementation


Mantis is the Ethereum Classic client produced by the Grothendieck Team integrated with the Daedalus wallet.


Research is expected to be cutting edge, it's expected to change fast, and it needs to be able to change fast because if they were stuck having to do deprecation on the old, well, it would just slow things down.
I don't think that there's any value in trying to stabilize research ideas because I think that's completely against the idea of research in general of needing to not - to be able to go a completely different direction if that's what needs to happen.

Piper Merriam, Trinity, Lead Architect

It's always important to be centered around what the key idea of sharding is and what you're trying to deliver and what you're trying to show to people. I think that, sure there are a lot of things to answer about p2p but I would argue that it's much more important to determine the consensus mechanism, to understand the committee selections. I think that is what the spec is getting at. That's why they don't go into as much implementation detail about these things. They just care about the main construct of it, which are the things that will actually enable a quadratically sharded blockchain.
If you feel like you're going too much into the weeds of implementation details just focus around what's needed for sharding. Then I think it will be easier to figure out. It's definitely difficult because it is a moving target, but it's something that can be worked on as a team.

Raul Jordan, Prysmatic Labs, Prysm

Layer Two

Scaling the Ethereum blockchain through off-chain mechanisms such as State Channels and Plasma.

Minimal Viable Plasma

OmiseGO's research implementation


Generalized State Channels

The Raiden Network

Aiming to enabling near-instant, low-fee and scalable payments


Working to give Ethereum smart contracts a computational boost


To stay up to date on the latest innovations, try visiting these forums.

Casper+Sharding chain v2.1 spec

A work-in-progress document describing the specification for the Casper+Sharding (shasper) chain, version 2.1.

Ethereum Research

A semi-public forum for Ethereum’s research efforts across layer one and layer two.

Sharding Gitter Channel

A place where all sharding implementers congregate to share insights and information.

The EF YouTube Channel

An important source of information documenting many gatherings, not just related to sharding, but across the ecosystem.


A community research and bounty project for the most critical issues facing the ecosystem.

The EF Twitter Feed

Another source broadacasting relevant meetings, specs and information.


A decentralized technical Knowledge Base for the Ethereum ecosystem.


An interactive code school that teaches you to write smart contracts in Solidity.


Scaling Today - Episode #0: Raul Jordan from Prysmatic Labs speaks about how to onboard developers for scaling the Ethereum blockchain and lessons he's learned building the Prysm client implementation for sharding. Subscribe to this podcast. View all episodes.